The chronology of Brioni

1800 –
1100 B.C.
Three Bronze Age settlements exist on Brioni.
1312A plague epidemic rages on Brioni.
1379The Genoese fleet defeats the Venetian one at Brioni.
1838King Friedrich August of Saxony visits Brioni.
1864Fort Tegetthoff is built on Monte Guardia.
1893The former Venetian family Franzini, living in Portugal, sells the Brijuni Islands for 48,000 guilders to the Swiss merchant Wildi, resident of Trieste. A few weeks later Wildi sells 12 of the 14 islands to Paul Kupelwieser for 75,000 guilders.
1894On April 4, forester Alois Zuffar takes up his duties on Brioni.
1896The first hotel (14 rooms) named “Brioni” is built. Government Council Dr. Wilhelm Swetlin is considered the first spa guest. The first pheasants are released.
1897Start of the dairy business
1898On June 24, according to Roberto Zuffar first considerations were made to approach Prof. Koch in order to defeat malaria.
1899On May 10, Prof. Frosch (employee of Prof. Koch) writes about necessary renovation works. Paul Kupelwieser’s sons Karl and Leopold marry (Auguste Schnabl and Anna Hiller respectively).
1900New Diesel generators are installed for power supply. On November 18, Paul Kupelwieser invites Prof. Robert Koch to Brioni to conduct malaria studies.
1901Paul Kupelwieser travels to Egypt with his brother Carl and a small group of travellers. He sends a report about the fight against malaria to the head of department, Knight of Kusy. On May 7, Zuffar writes to Prof. Frosch that with newly arrived personnel no more cases of malaria have occured on Brioni.
1902Start of preparatory work for the development of Brioni as a health resort. The old olive plantation is felled. On November 7, Dr. Otto Lenz is found as the suitable spa physician.
1903The first submarine water pipe is laid. Prof. Anton Gnirs begins with archaeological excavations.
1904For the first time, spa guests are statistically recorded with a total number of 333, of whom over 90% come from Austria.
1906In April, the Hotel Neptun I is being finished. The steamboat connection Pula-Brioni is being opened (until then it was necessary to travel via Dignano and Fasana). Archduchess Maria Josepha visits Brioni as the first member of the imperial family. On May 14, Paul Kupelwieser buys land in Medolino from the bishop of Parenzo.
1907In May, Dr. Lenz marries Maria von Guttenberg, daughter of the forestry inspector for the coastal region. Alois Zuffar, the operational manager, dies in autumn.
1908The water pipeline from the mainland to Brioni grande is renewed. The Hotel Carmen is built. The world’s first diesel-powered passenger ship is launched and used on the Pula-Brioni route.
1909In mid-July, the heir to the throne Archduke Franz Ferdinand and his family for the first time officially visit Brioni (incognito they had been there probably even earlier).
1910The Hotel Neptun II with 31 rooms is finished. A motorboat for 300 persons is put into service on the Pula-Brioni route. At the Val di Torre a workers’ residence which resembles a “proud manor house” is built. Carl Hagenbeck plans a branch of the Hamburger-Stellingen zoo and an acclimatization station for exotic animals on Brioni. In July, 11 archdukes and 11 archduchesses visit Brioni.
1911For the first time, the heir to the throne Archduke Franz Ferdinand resides on Brioni with his entourage for an extended period of time.
1912The heir to the throne resides on Brioni from the beginning of March to the beginning of May. Negotiations about the purchase of a part of the island or the construction of a castle fail. The Hotel Neptun III is completed, increasing the bed capacity to 500 (300) rooms. A sleeping car is provided on the route Vienna-Pula and is moved in Pula directly to the pier for the passage to Brioni.
1913The zoo is being finished and the winter swimming pool is being opened on October 6. Brioni is approached by the Austrian Lloyd and the Ungaro-Croata line. The Adriatic Bird Observatory is founded on Brioni by Eduard Paul Tratz.
1915In November Marie Kupelwieser dies on Brioni and is buried in the mausoleum.
1918Paul Kupelwieser publishes his memoirs under the title “Aus den Erinnerungen eines alten Österreichers” (The chapter on the conflict with Archduke Franz Ferdinand is not published on the advice of his brother Carl).
1919Paul Kupelwieser publishes “Vorschläge für die Gestaltung Deutschösterreichs”. He travels to Serbia searching for gold mines. He develops a plan to lift the Tauern Gold. On March 24, he dies in Vienna. In July, Leopold Kupelwieser writes a concept for the conversion of Brioni into a stock corporation.
1926Maria Anna Kupelwieser marries Manfred Mautner Markhof on Brioni. Dr. Otto Lenz publishes “Spaziergänge auf Brioni”.
1930On November 8, Carl (Carlo) Kupelwieser shoots himself with his hunting rifle. Petar Culot takes over the management.
1932Sale of shares to the Banca di Verona, including shares of Leopold Kupelwieser, presumably against his will. A lawsuit is filed against his sister Berta and Elda Lonzar, the wife of the late Carl Kupelwieser.
1934Advocate Troncone takes over the management on behalf of the Banca di Verona.
1935A Swiss consortium takes over the management, followed by the credit bank in Pula.
1936At the beginning of the year, wages cannot be paid anymore and bankruptcy is declared. The company becomes property of the Italian state. The Italian Ministry of Finance founds the Azienda patrimoniale dello Stato – Azienda autonoma di soggiorno Brioni. The water supply and the Hotel Carmen are renewed.
1938At the end of the year, Dr. Otto and Maria Lenz leave Brioni and move to Abbazia.
1943After Italy’s capitulation, German troops land on Brioni.
1945On April 25, the Allies bomb Brioni and severely destroy or damage many installations.
1949Josip Broz Tito develops Brioni into his second residence.
1983Brioni becomes a national park.
1984Brioni is reopened to visitors.